In this laboratory experiment for precollege or first year courses, students find the stoichiometry of the reaction of citric acid with sodium hydroxide by mixing different acid/base ratios and finding which releases the most heat. Students collected the data cooperatively, in teams, reducing lab time to 90 minutes. The introduction, results, and conclusions are organized in a discovery format.
Molar heat capacities of citric acid are given from 90 to 330 K. and for citric acid monohydrate from 120 to 300 K. The enthalpy of compound formation. A,,H (298.15 K)=(- 11.8* 1) kJ mole-'. INTRODUCTION. Many organic substances occurring in nature form hydrates.
Citric acid is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability. Intolerance to citric acid in the diet is known to exist.
Citric acid has three carboxylic acid groups, three ionizable, acidic hydrogen atoms and three Ka/pKa values. The neutralization reaction with sodium hydroxide has 3 to 1 stoichiometry as illustrated by the balanced complete neutralization equation.
Neutralizing value Bicarbonates Description Sodium Bicarbonate Most common base for chemical leavening and the source of carbon dioxide (CO 2) for leavening. Particle sizes vary by grade. The larger particles react slower. Neutralizing values listed below are based on sodium bicarbonate. Potassium Bicarbonate Common base for low sodium applications.
Disposing of Citric Acid? - Tips and Techniques
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Mar 09, 2017· How to Neutralize Citric Acid. Citric acid (C6H8O7) is a weak organic acid present in oranges, lemons, limes and other citrus fruits. It is also commonly found in the lab and/or kitchen. You can use this acid in your cooking and cleaning,.
Aug 12, 2014· Short answer: Citric acid is actually triprotic, and thus one mole of citric acid can neutralize three moles of strong base. To solve, we convert grams to moles using the molar mass, and then use the stoichiometric ratio (in this case 3mol base to 1mol citric acid). Finally, convert moles of acid …